Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

TitleAnalysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsMubiru, JN, Yang, AS, Olsen, C, Nayak, S, Livi, CB, Dick, EJ, Owston, M, Garcia-Forey, M, Shade, RE, Rogers, J
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue4
Paginatione94522
Date Published2014
ISSN1932-6203
KeywordsAlternative Splicing, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, Bayes Theorem, Cercopithecus aethiops, Cloning, Molecular, Codon, Introns, Likelihood Functions, Macaca fascicularis, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Pan troglodytes, Papio, Phylogeny, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA, Messenger
Abstract

The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis), and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS) of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203).

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0094522
Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID24732672
PubMed Central IDPMC3986117
Grant ListP40 OD010965 / OD / NIH HHS / United States
G12MD007591 / MD / NIMHD NIH HHS / United States
P51 RR013986 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
G12 MD007591 / MD / NIMHD NIH HHS / United States
RR019963/OD010965 / OD / NIH HHS / United States
P51 OD013986 / OD / NIH HHS / United States
8K01OD010973-04 / OD / NIH HHS / United States
P51 OD011133 / OD / NIH HHS / United States
C06 RR014578 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
C06 RR015456 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States