The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima.

TitleThe first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsChipman, AD, Ferrier, DEK, Brena, C, Qu, J, Hughes, DST, Schröder, R, Torres-Oliva, M, Znassi, N, Jiang, H, Almeida, FC, Alonso, CR, Apostolou, Z, Aqrawi, P, Arthur, W, Barna, JCJ, Blankenburg, KP, Brites, D, Capella-Gutiérrez, S, Coyle, M, Dearden, PK, Pasquier, LDu, Duncan, EJ, Ebert, D, Eibner, C, Erikson, G, Evans, PD, Extavour, CG, Francisco, L, Gabaldón, T, Gillis, WJ, Goodwin-Horn, EA, Green, JE, Griffiths-Jones, S, Grimmelikhuijzen, CJP, Gubbala, S, Guigó, R, Han, Y, Hauser, F, Havlak, P, Hayden, L, Helbing, S, Holder, M, Hui, JHL, Hunn, JP, Hunnekuhl, VS, Jackson, L, Javaid, M, Jhangiani, SN, Jiggins, FM, Jones, TE, Kaiser, TS, Kalra, D, Kenny, NJ, Korchina, V, Kovar, CL, F Kraus, B, Lapraz, F, Lee, SL, Lv, J, Mandapat, C, Manning, G, Mariotti, M, Mata, R, Mathew, T, Neumann, T, Newsham, I, Ngo, DN, Ninova, M, Okwuonu, G, Ongeri, F, Palmer, WJ, Patil, S, Patraquim, P, Pham, C, Pu, L-L, Putman, NH, Rabouille, C, Ramos, OMendivil, Rhodes, AC, Robertson, HE, Robertson, HM, Ronshaugen, M, Rozas, J, Saada, N, Sánchez-Gracia, A, Scherer, SE, Schurko, AM, Siggens, KW, Simmons, DN, Stief, A, Stolle, E, Telford, MJ, Tessmar-Raible, K, Thornton, R, Van der Zee, M, von Haeseler, A, Williams, JM, Willis, JH, Wu, Y, Zou, X, Lawson, D, Muzny, DM, Worley, KC, Gibbs, RA, Akam, M, Richards, S
JournalPLoS Biol
Date Published2014 Nov
KeywordsAnimals, Arthropods, Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides and Proteins, DNA Methylation, Evolution, Molecular, Female, Genome, Genome, Mitochondrial, Hormones, Male, Multigene Family, Phylogeny, Polymorphism, Genetic, Protein Kinases, Receptors, Odorant, RNA, Untranslated, Selenoproteins, Sex Chromosomes, Synteny, Transcription Factors

Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history.

Alternate JournalPLoS Biol
PubMed ID25423365
PubMed Central IDPMC4244043
Grant ListNHGRI HG004164 / / PHS HHS / United States
098410/Z/12/Z / WT_ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
/ WT_ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
AY0041321 / / PHS HHS / United States
R01AI55624 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
BBS/E/B/0000C194 / BB_ / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / United Kingdom
089615MA / WT_ / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
R01 AI055624 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
U54 HG003273 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
R01 HG004164 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
K12 GM102778 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States

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