Genetic influences on behavioral inhibition and anxiety in juvenile rhesus macaques.

TitleGenetic influences on behavioral inhibition and anxiety in juvenile rhesus macaques.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsRogers, J, Shelton, SE, Shelledy, W, Garcia, R, Kalin, NH
JournalGenes Brain Behav
Volume7
Issue4
Pagination463-9
Date Published2008 Jun
ISSN1601-183X
KeywordsAnimals, Anxiety Disorders, Behavior, Animal, Brain, Brain Chemistry, Disease Models, Animal, Fear, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Inhibition (Psychology), Macaca mulatta, Male, Neural Inhibition, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Serotonin, Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins, Social Behavior
Abstract

In humans and other animals, behavioral responses to threatening stimuli are an important component of temperament. Among children, extreme behavioral inhibition elicited by novel situations or strangers predicts the subsequent development of anxiety disorders and depression. Genetic differences among children are known to affect risk of developing behavioral inhibition and anxiety, but a more detailed understanding of genetic influences on susceptibility is needed. Nonhuman primates provide valuable models for studying the mechanisms underlying human behavior. Individual differences in threat-induced behavioral inhibition (freezing behavior) in young rhesus monkeys are stable over time and reflect individual levels of anxiety. This study used the well-established human intruder paradigm to elicit threat-induced freezing behavior and other behavioral responses in 285 young pedigreed rhesus monkeys. We examined the overall influence of quantitative genetic variation and tested the specific effect of the serotonin transporter promoter repeat polymorphism. Quantitative genetic analyses indicated that the residual heritability of freezing duration (behavioral inhibition) is h(2) = 0.384 (P = 0.012) and of 'orienting to the intruder' (vigilance) is h(2) = 0.908 (P = 0.00001). Duration of locomotion and hostility and frequency of cooing were not significantly heritable. The serotonin transporter polymorphism showed no significant effect on either freezing or orienting to the intruder. Our results suggest that this species could be used for detailed studies of genetic mechanisms influencing extreme behavioral inhibition, including the identification of specific genes that are involved in predisposing individuals to such behavior.

DOI10.1111/j.1601-183X.2007.00381.x
Alternate JournalGenes Brain Behav.
PubMed ID18045243
PubMed Central IDPMC2785008
Grant ListP51-RR013986 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
P50 MH069315-050002 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
MH69315 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
MH46729 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
P50 MH069315 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
MH65462 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH046729 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH065462 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
P51 RR013986 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States