Genetic Variants in SGLT1, Glucose Tolerance, and Cardiometabolic Risk.

TitleGenetic Variants in SGLT1, Glucose Tolerance, and Cardiometabolic Risk.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsSeidelmann, SB, Feofanova, E, Yu, B, Franceschini, N, Claggett, B, Kuokkanen, M, Puolijoki, H, Ebeling, T, Perola, M, Salomaa, V, Shah, A, Coresh, J, Selvin, E, MacRae, CA, Cheng, S, Boerwinkle, E, Solomon, SD
JournalJ Am Coll Cardiol
Date Published2018 Oct 09

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the SGLT1 (sodium/glucose co-transporter-1) gene result in a rare glucose/galactose malabsorption disorder and neonatal death if untreated. In the general population, variants related to intestinal glucose absorption remain uncharacterized.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to identify functional SGLT1 gene variants and characterize their clinical consequences.

METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants enrolled from 4 U.S. communities. The association of functional, nonsynonymous substitutions in SGLT1 with 2-h oral glucose tolerance test results was determined. Variants related to impaired glucose tolerance were studied, and Mendelian randomization analysis of cardiometabolic outcomes was performed.

RESULTS: Among 5,687 European-American subjects (mean age 54 ± 6 years; 47% male), those who carried a haplotype of 3 missense mutations (frequency of 6.7%)-Asn51Ser, Ala411Thr, and His615Gln-had lower 2-h glucose and odds of impaired glucose tolerance than noncarriers (β-coefficient: -8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -12.7 to -3.3; OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.86, respectively). The association of the haplotype with oral glucose tolerance test results was consistent in a replication sample of 2,791 African-American subjects (β = -16.3; 95% CI: -36.6 to 4.1; OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.91) and an external European-Finnish population sample of 6,784 subjects (β = -3.2; 95% CI: -6.4 to -0.02; OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.98). Using a Mendelian randomization approach in the index cohort, the estimated 25-year effect of a reduction of 20 mg/dl in 2-h glucose via SGLT1 inhibition would be reduced prevalent obesity (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.63), incident diabetes (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.81), heart failure (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.83), and death (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.90).

CONCLUSIONS: Functionally damaging missense variants in SGLT1 protect from diet-induced hyperglycemia in multiple populations. Reduced intestinal glucose uptake may protect from long-term cardiometabolic outcomes, providing support for therapies that target SGLT1 function to prevent and treat metabolic conditions.

Alternate JournalJ. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PubMed ID30286918
Grant ListT32 HL094301 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States