The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.

TitleThe Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsAhola, V, Lehtonen, R, Somervuo, P, Salmela, L, Koskinen, P, Rastas, P, Välimäki, N, Paulin, L, Kvist, J, Wahlberg, N, Tanskanen, J, Hornett, EA, Ferguson, LC, Luo, S, Cao, Z, de Jong, MA, Duplouy, A, Smolander, O-P, Vogel, H, McCoy, RC, Qian, K, Chong, WSwee, Zhang, Q, Ahmad, F, Haukka, JK, Joshi, A, Salojärvi, J, Wheat, CW, Grosse-Wilde, E, Hughes, D, Katainen, R, Pitkänen, E, Ylinen, J, Waterhouse, RM, Turunen, M, Vähärautio, A, Ojanen, SP, Schulman, AH, Taipale, M, Lawson, D, Ukkonen, E, Mäkinen, V, Goldsmith, MR, Holm, L, Auvinen, P, Frilander, MJ, Hanski, I
JournalNat Commun
Date Published2014 Sep 05
KeywordsAnimals, Base Sequence, Butterflies, Chromosome Aberrations, Chromosome Mapping, Evolution, Molecular, Genome, Karyotype, Likelihood Functions, Models, Genetic, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Synteny

Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths.

Alternate JournalNat Commun
PubMed ID25189940
PubMed Central IDPMC4164777
Grant List232826 / ERC_ / European Research Council / International

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