|Title||Identification of a RAI1-associated disease network through integration of exome sequencing, transcriptomics, and 3D genomics.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Loviglio, MNicla, Beck, CR, White, JJ, Leleu, M, Harel, T, Guex, N, Niknejad, A, Bi, W, Chen, ES, Crespo, I, Yan, J, Charng, W-L, Gu, S, Fang, P, Coban-Akdemir, Z, Shaw, CA, Jhangiani, SN, Muzny, DM, Gibbs, RA, Rougemont, J, Xenarios, I, Lupski, JR, Reymond, A|
|Date Published||2016 11 01|
|Keywords||Animals, Embryo, Mammalian, Exome, Female, Gene Regulatory Networks, Genomics, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mutation, Phenotype, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA, Messenger, Smith-Magenis Syndrome, Transcription Factors, Transcriptome|
BACKGROUND: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a developmental disability/multiple congenital anomaly disorder resulting from haploinsufficiency of RAI1. It is characterized by distinctive facial features, brachydactyly, sleep disturbances, and stereotypic behaviors.
METHODS: We investigated a cohort of 15 individuals with a clinical suspicion of SMS who showed neither deletion in the SMS critical region nor damaging variants in RAI1 using whole exome sequencing. A combination of network analysis (co-expression and biomedical text mining), transcriptomics, and circularized chromatin conformation capture (4C-seq) was applied to verify whether modified genes are part of the same disease network as known SMS-causing genes.
RESULTS: Potentially deleterious variants were identified in nine of these individuals using whole-exome sequencing. Eight of these changes affect KMT2D, ZEB2, MAP2K2, GLDC, CASK, MECP2, KDM5C, and POGZ, known to be associated with Kabuki syndrome 1, Mowat-Wilson syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, glycine encephalopathy, mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, X-linked mental retardation 13, X-linked mental retardation Claes-Jensen type, and White-Sutton syndrome, respectively. The ninth individual carries a de novo variant in JAKMIP1, a regulator of neuronal translation that was recently found deleted in a patient with autism spectrum disorder. Analyses of co-expression and biomedical text mining suggest that these pathologies and SMS are part of the same disease network. Further support for this hypothesis was obtained from transcriptome profiling that showed that the expression levels of both Zeb2 and Map2k2 are perturbed in Rai1 mice. As an orthogonal approach to potentially contributory disease gene variants, we used chromatin conformation capture to reveal chromatin contacts between RAI1 and the loci flanking ZEB2 and GLDC, as well as between RAI1 and human orthologs of the genes that show perturbed expression in our Rai1 mouse model.
CONCLUSIONS: These holistic studies of RAI1 and its interactions allow insights into SMS and other disorders associated with intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities. Our findings support a pan-genomic approach to the molecular diagnosis of a distinctive disorder.
|Alternate Journal||Genome Med|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC5088687|
|Grant List||U54 HG006542 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States |
T32 GM007526 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
UM1 HG006542 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
K99 GM120453 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
R01 NS058529 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States
T32 GM008307 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States