Inhibition of CSF1R and KIT with pexidartinib reduces inflammatory signaling and cell viability in endometriosis.

TitleInhibition of CSF1R and KIT with pexidartinib reduces inflammatory signaling and cell viability in endometriosis.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsDunn, TN, Cope, DI, Tang, S, Sirupangi, T, Parks, SE, Liao, Z, Yuan, F, Creighton, CJ, Masand, RP, Radilla, LAlpuing, Guan, X, Detti, L, Monsivais, D, Matzuk, MM
Date Published2024 Jan 16

Endometriosis is a common and debilitating disease, affecting ∼170 million women worldwide. Affected patients have limited therapeutic options such as hormonal suppression or surgical excision of the lesions, though therapies are often not completely curative. Targeting receptor tyrosine-kinases (RTKs) could provide a nonhormonal treatment option for endometriosis. We determined that two RTKs, Macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (CSF1R) and Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor KIT (KIT), are overexpressed in endometriotic lesions and could be novel nonhormonal therapeutic targets for endometriosis. The kinase activity of CSF1R and KIT is suppressed by pexidartinib, a small molecule inhibitor that was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Using immunohistochemistry, we detected CSF1R and KIT in endometriotic tissues obtained from peritoneal lesions, colorectal lesions, and endometriomas. Specifically, we show that KIT is localized to the epithelium of the lesions, while CSF1R is expressed in the stroma and macrophages of the endometriotic lesions. Given the high epithelial expression of CSF1R and KIT, 12Z endometriotic epithelial cells were used to evaluate the efficacy of dual CSF1R and KIT inhibition with pexidartinib. We found that pexidartinib suppressed activation in 12Z cells of JNK, STAT3 and AKT signaling pathways, which control key pro-inflammatory and survival networks within the cell. Using quantitative real time PCR, we determined that pexidartinib suppressed interleukin 8 (IL8) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression. Lastly, we demonstrated that pexidartinib decreased cell growth and viability. Overall, these results indicate that pexidartinib-mediated CSF1R and KIT inhibition reduces pro-inflammatory signaling and cell viability in endometriosis.

Alternate JournalEndocrinology
PubMed ID38227801