Nonhuman primates as models for studies of prostate specific antigen and prostatic diseases.

TitleNonhuman primates as models for studies of prostate specific antigen and prostatic diseases.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsMubiru, JN, Hubbard, GB, Dick, EJ, Furman, J, Troyer, DA, Rogers, J
JournalProstate
Volume68
Issue14
Pagination1546-54
Date Published2008 Oct 01
ISSN1097-0045
KeywordsAnimals, Body Weight, Callithrix, Disease Models, Animal, Haplorhini, Immunoblotting, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Male, Organ Size, Papio, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Neoplasms, Racemases and Epimerases, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Because prostate specific antigen (PSA) is released at increased levels into the blood early in the development of prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis, it is widely used as a marker for these diseases. However, PSA has clinical limitations as a screen for prostatic diseases due to its low sensitivity and specificity. There is a strong need to better understand the biology of PSA and factors affecting its serum levels.METHODS: We evaluated cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, baboons, and marmosets for their suitability as models for the study of PSA biology and prostatic diseases.RESULTS: Prostates of several nonhuman primates are anatomically similar to the human counterpart. Anti-human PSA antibody detected PSA antigens in all the Old World monkeys (cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, and baboons) but not in marmosets. Of the Old World monkeys, cynomolgus macaques have the highest serum PSA levels; baboons have the lowest. Serum PSA levels from macaques includes a number of outlier samples with unusually high values. We also report two cases of abnormal pathologies in macaques accompanied by high serum PSA levels. One case consisted of prostatic hyperplasia involving both glandular and basal cells in a cynomolgus macaque and another of glandular hyperplasia and atrophy in a rhesus macaque. The finding that pathological changes in the prostate of macaques may lead to increases in serum PSA is worthy of further exploration.CONCLUSION: Cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques are promising animal models for PSA biology studies.

DOI10.1002/pros.20814
Alternate JournalProstate
PubMed ID18668524
PubMed Central IDPMC2559969
Grant ListC06 RR015456-01A1 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
P51 RR013986 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
C06 RR014578-01 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
P51 RR013986-09S1 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
C06 RR014578 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
C06 RR15456 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
C06 RR015456 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States