Sequencing individual genomes with recurrent genomic disorder deletions: an approach to characterize genes for autosomal recessive rare disease traits.

TitleSequencing individual genomes with recurrent genomic disorder deletions: an approach to characterize genes for autosomal recessive rare disease traits.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsYuan, B, Schulze, KV, Batzir, NAssia, Sinson, J, Dai, H, Zhu, W, Bocanegra, F, Fong, C-T, Holder, J, Nguyen, J, Schaaf, CP, Yang, Y, Bi, W, Eng, C, Shaw, C, Lupski, JR, Liu, P
JournalGenome Med
Date Published2022 Sep 30
KeywordsBase Sequence, Genomics, Homologous Recombination, Humans, Rare Diseases, Retrospective Studies

BACKGROUND: In medical genetics, discovery and characterization of disease trait contributory genes and alleles depends on genetic reasoning, study design, and patient ascertainment; we suggest a segmental haploid genetics approach to enhance gene discovery and molecular diagnostics.

METHODS: We constructed a genome-wide map for nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated recurrent genomic deletions and used this map to estimate population frequencies of NAHR deletions based on large-scale population cohorts and region-specific studies. We calculated recessive disease carrier burden using high-quality pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants from ClinVar and gnomAD. We developed a NIRD (NAHR deletion Impact to Recessive Disease) score for recessive disorders by quantifying the contribution of NAHR deletion to the overall allele load that enumerated all pairwise combinations of disease-causing alleles; we used a Punnett square approach based on an assumption of random mating. Literature mining was conducted to identify all reported patients with defects in a gene with a high NIRD score; meta-analysis was performed on these patients to estimate the representation of NAHR deletions in recessive traits from contemporary human genomics studies. Retrospective analyses of extant clinical exome sequencing (cES) were performed for novel rare recessive disease trait gene and allele discovery from individuals with NAHR deletions.

RESULTS: We present novel genomic insights regarding the genome-wide impact of NAHR recurrent segmental variants on recessive disease burden; we demonstrate the utility of NAHR recurrent deletions to enhance discovery in the challenging context of autosomal recessive (AR) traits and biallelic variation. Computational results demonstrate new mutations mediated by NAHR, involving recurrent deletions at 30 genomic regions, likely drive recessive disease burden for over 74% of loci within these segmental deletions or at least 2% of loci genome-wide. Meta-analyses on 170 literature-reported patients implicate that NAHR deletions are depleted from the ascertained pool of AR trait alleles. Exome reanalysis of personal genomes from subjects harboring recurrent deletions uncovered new disease-contributing variants in genes including COX10, ERCC6, PRRT2, and OTUD7A.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that genomic sequencing of personal genomes with NAHR deletions could dramatically improve allele and gene discovery and enhance clinical molecular diagnosis. Moreover, results suggest NAHR events could potentially enable human haploid genetic screens as an approach to experimental inquiry into disease biology.

Alternate JournalGenome Med
PubMed ID36180924
PubMed Central IDPMC9526336
Grant ListR35 HG011311 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
UM1HG006542 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
R35HG011311 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States
R35NS105078 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States