Validation of Single-Nucleotide Mosaic Variants Through Droplet Digital PCR.

TitleValidation of Single-Nucleotide Mosaic Variants Through Droplet Digital PCR.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2024
AuthorsGrochowski, CM, Gibbs, RA, Doddapaneni, H
JournalCurr Protoc
Date Published2024 May
KeywordsFluorescent Dyes, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Mosaicism, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

The detection, validation, and subsequent interpretation of potentially mosaic single-nucleotide variants (SNV) within next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge in both research and clinical laboratory settings. The ability to identify mosaic variants in high genome coverage sequencing data at levels of ≤1% underscores the necessity for developing guidelines and best practices to verify these variants orthogonally. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has proven to be a powerful and precise method that allows for the determination of low-level variant fractions within a given sample. Herein we describe two precise ddPCR methods using either a fluorescent TaqMan hydrolysis probe approach or an EvaGreen fluorescent dye protocol. The TaqMan approach relies on two different fluorescent probes (FAM and HEX/VIC), each designed to amplify selectively only in the presence of a single nucleotide change denoting the variant or reference position. The fractional abundance is then calculated to determine the relative quantities of both alleles in the final sample. The EvaGreen protocol relies on two independent reactions with oligonucleotide primers designed with the single nucleotide change denoting the variant at the penultimate position of the primer. The relative amplification efficiency of both primer sets (reference and variant) can be compared to determine the mosaic level of a given variant. As the cost of high-coverage sequencing continues to decrease, the identification of potentially mosaic variants will also increase. The approaches outlined will allow clinicians and researchers a more precise determination of the true mosaic level of a given variant allowing them to better assess not only its potential pathogenicity but also its possible recurrence risk when offering genetic counseling to families. © 2024 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) with TaqMan hydrolysis probes Alternate Protocol: EvaGreen oligonucleotide-specific ddPCR.

Alternate JournalCurr Protoc
PubMed ID38774978
PubMed Central IDPMC11115377
Grant ListUM1 DA058229 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
1UM1DA058229 / GF / NIH HHS / United States

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