Whole-exome sequencing points to considerable genetic heterogeneity of cerebral palsy.

TitleWhole-exome sequencing points to considerable genetic heterogeneity of cerebral palsy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsMcMichael, G, Bainbridge, MN, Haan, E, Corbett, M, Gardner, A, Thompson, S, van Bon, BWM, van Eyk, CL, Broadbent, J, Reynolds, C, O'Callaghan, ME, Nguyen, LS, Adelson, DL, Russo, R, Jhangiani, S, Doddapaneni, H, Muzny, DM, Gibbs, RA, Gecz, J, MacLennan, AH
JournalMol Psychiatry
Volume20
Issue2
Pagination176-82
Date Published2015 Feb
ISSN1476-5578
KeywordsAdult, Animals, Cerebral Palsy, Cohort Studies, Exome, Female, Gene Library, Genetic Heterogeneity, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Gestational Age, Humans, Male, Mutation, Parents, Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common, clinically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting movement and posture. Its prevalence has changed little in 50 years and the causes remain largely unknown. The genetic contribution to CP causation has been predicted to be ~2%. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 183 cases with CP including both parents (98 cases) or one parent (67 cases) and 18 singleton cases (no parental DNA). We identified and validated 61 de novo protein-altering variants in 43 out of 98 (44%) case-parent trios. Initial prioritization of variants for causality was by mutation type, whether they were known or predicted to be deleterious and whether they occurred in known disease genes whose clinical spectrum overlaps CP. Further, prioritization used two multidimensional frameworks-the Residual Variation Intolerance Score and the Combined Annotation-dependent Depletion score. Ten de novo mutations in three previously identified disease genes (TUBA1A (n=2), SCN8A (n=1) and KDM5C (n=1)) and in six novel candidate CP genes (AGAP1, JHDM1D, MAST1, NAA35, RFX2 and WIPI2) were predicted to be potentially pathogenic for CP. In addition, we identified four predicted pathogenic, hemizygous variants on chromosome X in two known disease genes, L1CAM and PAK3, and in two novel candidate CP genes, CD99L2 and TENM1. In total, 14% of CP cases, by strict criteria, had a potentially disease-causing gene variant. Half were in novel genes. The genetic heterogeneity highlights the complexity of the genetic contribution to CP. Function and pathway studies are required to establish the causative role of these putative pathogenic CP genes.

DOI10.1038/mp.2014.189
Alternate JournalMol. Psychiatry
PubMed ID25666757
Grant ListU54 HG003273 / HG / NHGRI NIH HHS / United States